cholesterol is a lipid of Sterol Lipids (ST) class. Cholesterol is associated with abnormalities such as Trypanosomiasis, Chagas Disease, Cleft Palate, Chondrodysplasia punctata 2, X-linked dominant and Child syndrome. The involved functions are known as Blood Circulation, Sterol Biosynthesis Pathway, Receptor Mediated Endocytosis, Methylation and Signal. Cholesterol often locates in Animal tissue, Blood, Membrane, Plasma membrane and peroxisome. The associated genes with cholesterol are MBD2 gene, SIM, SLC33A1 gene, Genome and NSDHL gene. The related lipids are Sterols, zymosterol, fecosterol, Total cholesterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol. The related experimental models are Mouse Model, Knock-out, Genetically Engineered Mouse and Disease model.

References related to pathways published in Others

PMIDJournalPublished DateAuthorTitle
6831033Blood1983Hoffman PC et al.Cholesterol and mevalonic acid are independent requirements for the in vitro proliferation of human bone marrow granulocyte progenitor cells: studies using ML-236B.
9405354EMBO J.1997Gadbut AP et al.Induction of the cholesterol metabolic pathway regulates the farnesylation of RAS in embryonic chick heart cells: a new role for ras in regulating the expression of muscarinic receptors and G proteins.
8942999Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.1996Nohturfft A et al.Recurrent G-to-A substitution in a single codon of SREBP cleavage-activating protein causes sterol resistance in three mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines.
9152381J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.1997Amin D et al.RPR 107393, a potent squalene synthase inhibitor and orally effective cholesterol-lowering agent: comparison with inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase.
8990234Clin. Chem.1997Jira PE et al.Pitfalls in measuring plasma cholesterol in the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.
9579167Arch. Dis. Child.1998Clayton PTDisorders of cholesterol biosynthesis.
9808646J. Nutr.1998Trautwein EA et al.Dietary inulin lowers plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol and alters biliary bile acid profile in hamsters.
9765531Plant Physiol.1998Schaller H et al.Overexpression of an Arabidopsis cDNA encoding a sterol-C24(1)-methyltransferase in tobacco modifies the ratio of 24-methyl cholesterol to sitosterol and is associated with growth reduction.
10334993Science1999Parks DJ et al.Bile acids: natural ligands for an orphan nuclear receptor.
10393050Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.1999Fliesler SJ et al.Marked alteration of sterol metabolism and composition without compromising retinal development or function.
10070053Am. J. Physiol.1999Wang DQ et al.Cholic acid aids absorption, biliary secretion, and phase transitions of cholesterol in murine cholelithogenesis.
10026334Gut1999Van Erpecum KJ and Van Berge-Henegouwen GPGallstones: an intestinal disease?
10541563Mol. Hum. Reprod.1999Osheroff JE et al.Regulation of human sperm capacitation by a cholesterol efflux-stimulated signal transduction pathway leading to protein kinase A-mediated up-regulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation.
10441095Circulation1999Eriksson M et al.Stimulation of fecal steroid excretion after infusion of recombinant proapolipoprotein A-I. Potential reverse cholesterol transport in humans.
11171976Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2001DeBose-Boyd RA et al.Expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA in rat hepatoma cells requires endogenous LXR ligands.
11149950Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2001Laffitte BA et al.LXRs control lipid-inducible expression of the apolipoprotein E gene in macrophages and adipocytes.
11159342Biol. Reprod.2001Hegele-Hartung C et al.Activation of meiotic maturation in rat oocytes after treatment with follicular fluid meiosis-activating sterol in vitro and ex vivo.
11160853Mol. Pharmacol.2001Reszka AA et al.Nitrogen-bisphosphonates block retinoblastoma phosphorylation and cell growth by inhibiting the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in a keratinocyte model for esophageal irritation.
11717136Biol. Reprod.2001Baltsen MGonadotropin-induced accumulation of 4,4-dimethylsterols in mouse ovaries and its temporal relation to meiosis.
11371634Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2001Ou J et al.Unsaturated fatty acids inhibit transcription of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) gene by antagonizing ligand-dependent activation of the LXR.
11408580Mol. Biol. Cell2001Matyash V et al.Distribution and transport of cholesterol in Caenorhabditis elegans.
11435511J. Nutr.2001Tammi A et al.Dietary plant sterols alter the serum plant sterol concentration but not the cholesterol precursor sterol concentrations in young children (the STRIP Study). Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project.
12006351Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.2002Lindenthal B et al.Isotopomer spectral analysis of intermediates of cholesterol synthesis in human subjects and hepatic cells.
12215500Plant Cell2002Clouse SDArabidopsis mutants reveal multiple roles for sterols in plant development.
12226510Plant Physiol.2002Holmberg N et al.Sterol C-24 methyltransferase type 1 controls the flux of carbon into sterol biosynthesis in tobacco seed.
12815072Genes Dev.2003Holt JA et al.Definition of a novel growth factor-dependent signal cascade for the suppression of bile acid biosynthesis.
12824470Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2003Zheng YH et al.Nef increases the synthesis of and transports cholesterol to lipid rafts and HIV-1 progeny virions.
12668600Hum. Mol. Genet.2003Herman GEDisorders of cholesterol biosynthesis: prototypic metabolic malformation syndromes.
12576301Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.2003Chiang JYBile acid regulation of hepatic physiology: III. Bile acids and nuclear receptors.
12529392Mol. Cell. Biol.2003Otte K et al.Identification of farnesoid X receptor beta as a novel mammalian nuclear receptor sensing lanosterol.
12569201Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2003Dussault I et al.Identification of an endogenous ligand that activates pregnane X receptor-mediated sterol clearance.
12606419Biol. Reprod.2003Nimmo MR and Cross NLStructural features of sterols required to inhibit human sperm capacitation.
12444248Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2002Yu L et al.Disruption of Abcg5 and Abcg8 in mice reveals their crucial role in biliary cholesterol secretion.
12509506Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2003Goodwin B et al.Identification of bile acid precursors as endogenous ligands for the nuclear xenobiotic pregnane X receptor.
10653533Toxicol. Sci.2000Duguay AB et al.Manganese-bilirubin effect on cholesterol accumulation in rat bile canalicular membranes.
11115826Gut2001Gilat T et al.Fatty acid bile acid conjugates (FABACs)--new molecules for the prevention of cholesterol crystallisation in bile.
10946069Cardiovasc. Res.2000Gray DF et al.HMG CoA reductase inhibition reduces sarcolemmal Na(+)-K(+) pump density.
9761794Plant Cell1998Klahre U et al.The Arabidopsis DIMINUTO/DWARF1 gene encodes a protein involved in steroid synthesis.
9616123Science1998Cooper MK et al.Teratogen-mediated inhibition of target tissue response to Shh signaling.
9655903J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.1998Liu D and Bachmann KAAn investigation of the relationship between estrogen, estrogen metabolites and blood cholesterol levels in ovariectomized rats.
10069828Plant Physiol.1999Choe S et al.The Arabidopsis dwarf1 mutant is defective in the conversion of 24-methylenecholesterol to campesterol in brassinosteroid biosynthesis.
11451716Am. J. Clin. Nutr.2001Lin DS and Connor WEFecal steroids of the coprolite of a Greenland Eskimo mummy, AD 1475: a clue to dietary sterol intake.
11882512Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.2002Ostlund RE et al.Gastrointestinal absorption and plasma kinetics of soy Delta(5)-phytosterols and phytostanols in humans.
14657168J. Neurosci.2003Zacco A et al.3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors protect cortical neurons from excitotoxicity.
14657394Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2003Guryev O et al.A pathway for the metabolism of vitamin D3: unique hydroxylated metabolites formed during catalysis with cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1).
14512442Circ. Res.2003Rowe AH et al.Enhanced synthesis of the oxysterol 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol in macrophages by inhibitors of 2,3-oxidosqualene:lanosterol cyclase: a novel mechanism for the attenuation of foam cell formation.
15286289Plant Physiol.2004Nomura T et al.Brassinosteroid deficiency due to truncated steroid 5alpha-reductase causes dwarfism in the lk mutant of pea.
15247383Plant Physiol.2004Kim TW et al.Novel biosynthetic pathway of castasterone from cholesterol in tomato.
15269103Biol. Reprod.2004Cao X et al.Meiosis-activating sterol synthesis in rat preovulatory follicle: is it involved in resumption of meiosis?
15117885FASEB J.2004Danesh FR and Kanwar YSModulatory effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in diabetic microangiopathy.
14684813Science2003Wechsler A et al.Generation of viable cholesterol-free mice.
21622796Appl. Environ. Microbiol.2011Drzyzga O et al.Cholesterol degradation by Gordonia cholesterolivorans.
21383147Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2011Hatori M et al.Light-dependent and circadian clock-regulated activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein, X-box-binding protein 1, and heat shock factor pathways.
20921434Hypertension2010Barchiesi F et al.Candidate genes and mechanisms for 2-methoxyestradiol-mediated vasoprotection.
20881306Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.2011Mast N et al.Cholestenoic Acid is an important elimination product of cholesterol in the retina: comparison of retinal cholesterol metabolism with that in the brain.
19176762Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.2009Romanenko VG et al.The role of cell cholesterol and the cytoskeleton in the interaction between IK1 and maxi-K channels.
19179626Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.2009Leblond F et al.Regulation of the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 in intestinal epithelial cells.
18988759Drug Metab. Dispos.2009Miyata M et al.Cholesterol feeding prevents hepatic accumulation of bile acids in cholic acid-fed farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-null mice: FXR-independent suppression of intestinal bile acid absorption.
18836008Appl. Environ. Microbiol.2008van der Geize R et al.Characterization of a second Rhodococcus erythropolis SQ1 3-ketosteroid 9alpha-hydroxylase activity comprising a terminal oxygenase homologue, KshA2, active with oxygenase-reductase component KshB.
19299314Biol. Reprod.2009Palaniappan M and Menon KMRegulation of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1a by human chorionic gonadotropin and insulin in cultured rat theca-interstitial cells.
19700418Carcinogenesis2009Calleros L et al.Oncogenic Ras, but not (V600E)B-RAF, protects from cholesterol depletion-induced apoptosis through the PI3K/AKT pathway in colorectal cancer cells.
19531574Mol. Cancer Ther.2009Trasino SE et al.Ligand, receptor, and cell type-dependent regulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA in prostate cancer epithelial cells.
19587087Am. J. Clin. Nutr.2009Iuliano L et al.Association of cholesterol oxidation and abnormalities in fatty acid metabolism in cystic fibrosis.
19880645Appl. Environ. Microbiol.2010Mathieu JM et al.7-ketocholesterol catabolism by Rhodococcus jostii RHA1.
20015981J. Virol.2010Sharma M et al.Inhibition of sterol biosynthesis reduces tombusvirus replication in yeast and plants.
20413720Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.2010Coy DJ et al.ABCG5/ABCG8-independent biliary cholesterol excretion in lactating rats.
20305089Mol. Cell Proteomics2010Jiang XS et al.Quantitative proteomics analysis of inborn errors of cholesterol synthesis: identification of altered metabolic pathways in DHCR7 and SC5D deficiency.
17575085Diabetes2007Hao M et al.Direct effect of cholesterol on insulin secretion: a novel mechanism for pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction.
17428924Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2007Schekman RHow sterols regulate protein sorting and traffic.
17993555Appl. Environ. Microbiol.2008Chiang YR et al.Cholest-4-en-3-one-delta 1-dehydrogenase, a flavoprotein catalyzing the second step in anoxic cholesterol metabolism.
18039927FASEB J.2008Wang N et al.ATP-binding cassette transporters G1 and G4 mediate cholesterol and desmosterol efflux to HDL and regulate sterol accumulation in the brain.
18187582Mol. Pharmacol.2008Weinglass AB et al.Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells: a pharmacologically validated system for NPC1L1-mediated cholesterol uptake.
18238900Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2008Kim HJ et al.Liver X receptor beta (LXRbeta): a link between beta-sitosterol and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-Parkinson's dementia.
18292185Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.2008Wooton-Kee CR et al.Increased cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase expression and size of the bile acid pool in the lactating rat.
18367553Development2008Talamillo A et al.Smt3 is required for Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis.
15621423FEMS Microbiol. Lett.2005Veiga P et al.Correlation between faecal microbial community structure and cholesterol-to-coprostanol conversion in the human gut.
15621432FEMS Microbiol. Lett.2005Hajjaj H et al.Aspergillus oryzae produces compounds inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis downstream of dihydrolanosterol.
14976318Science2004Altmann SW et al.Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 protein is critical for intestinal cholesterol absorption.
16291572Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.2006Bilz S et al.Activation of the farnesoid X receptor improves lipid metabolism in combined hyperlipidemic hamsters.
16221727Development2005Huang X et al.A Drosophila model of the Niemann-Pick type C lysosome storage disease: dnpc1a is required for molting and sterol homeostasis.
16219690J. Cell. Sci.2005Churchward MA et al.Cholesterol facilitates the native mechanism of Ca2+-triggered membrane fusion.
15514256J. Nutr.2004Mullen E et al.Soy isoflavones affect sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) and SREBP-regulated genes in HepG2 cells.
15492319Circulation2004O'Connell BJ et al.Cellular physiology of cholesterol efflux in vascular endothelial cells.
14769702Circulation2004Salen G et al.Ezetimibe effectively reduces plasma plant sterols in patients with sitosterolemia.
15994910Plant Cell2005Hong Z et al.The Rice brassinosteroid-deficient dwarf2 mutant, defective in the rice homolog of Arabidopsis DIMINUTO/DWARF1, is rescued by the endogenously accumulated alternative bioactive brassinosteroid, dolichosterone.
16000773Appl. Environ. Microbiol.2005Hajjaj H et al.Effect of 26-oxygenosterols from Ganoderma lucidum and their activity as cholesterol synthesis inhibitors.
16907733FEMS Microbiol. Lett.2006Macreadie IG et al.Growth inhibition of Candida species and Aspergillus fumigatus by statins.
16452637Mol. Biol. Cell2006Ridsdale A et al.Cholesterol is required for efficient endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi transport of secretory membrane proteins.
17158421Am. J. Clin. Nutr.2006Hallikainen M et al.Interaction between cholesterol and glucose metabolism during dietary carbohydrate modification in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.
16818617Cancer Res.2006Chuu CP et al.Inhibition of tumor growth and progression of LNCaP prostate cancer cells in athymic mice by androgen and liver X receptor agonist.
16199524Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2005Xu F et al.Dual roles for cholesterol in mammalian cells.
17185355Gut2007Guarino MP et al.Ursodeoxycholic acid improves muscle contractility and inflammation in symptomatic gallbladders with cholesterol gallstones.
17220261Appl. Environ. Microbiol.2007Zhang S et al.Identification of a sterol Delta7 reductase gene involved in desmosterol biosynthesis in Mortierella alpina 1S-4.
17008555Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.2007Alrefai WA et al.Modulation of human Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 gene expression by sterol: Role of sterol regulatory element binding protein 2.
18772220Brain2008Leoni V et al.Plasma 24S-hydroxycholesterol and caudate MRI in pre-manifest and early Huntington's disease.
18063707Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.2008Annaba F et al.Modulation of ileal bile acid transporter (ASBT) activity by depletion of plasma membrane cholesterol: association with lipid rafts.
22628034Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.2012Jones RD et al.Delineation of biochemical, molecular, and physiological changes accompanying bile acid pool size restoration in Cyp7a1(-/-) mice fed low levels of cholic acid.
22535758J. Nutr.2012Brauner R et al.Phytosterols reduce cholesterol absorption by inhibition of 27-hydroxycholesterol generation, liver X receptor α activation, and expression of the basolateral sterol exporter ATP-binding cassette A1 in Caco-2 enterocytes.
21940598Am. J. Clin. Nutr.2011Leichtle AB et al.Effects of a 2-y dietary weight-loss intervention on cholesterol metabolism in moderately obese men.
21940599Am. J. Clin. Nutr.2011Paramsothy P et al.Plasma sterol evidence for decreased absorption and increased synthesis of cholesterol in insulin resistance and obesity.
22343944EMBO J.2012Sodero AO et al.Cholesterol loss during glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity.
22923735J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.2012Marriott KS et al.σ-1 receptor at the mitochondrial-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane is responsible for mitochondrial metabolic regulation.
22977134Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.2012Fourgeux C et al.Single nucleotide polymorphism in the cholesterol-24S-hydroxylase (CYP46A1) gene and its association with CFH and LOC387715 gene polymorphisms in age-related macular degeneration.
22156476Biol. Reprod.2012Bogan RL et al.Liver x receptor modulation of gene expression leading to proluteolytic effects in primate luteal cells.
22396595Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2012Shi Z and Ruvkun GThe mevalonate pathway regulates microRNA activity in Caenorhabditis elegans.
23115269Biol. Reprod.2013Boerke A et al.Involvement of bicarbonate-induced radical signaling in oxysterol formation and sterol depletion of capacitating mammalian sperm during in vitro fertilization.
23139217Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.2013Henkel AS et al.Hepatic overexpression of Abcb11 in mice promotes the conservation of bile acids within the enterohepatic circulation.
23024343J. Bacteriol.2012Mohn WW et al.Gene cluster encoding cholate catabolism in Rhodococcus spp.
23530189Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2013Rauthan M et al.The mitochondrial unfolded protein response activator ATFS-1 protects cells from inhibition of the mevalonate pathway.
24085193Toxicol. Sci.2014Nakano-Ito K et al.E2012-induced cataract and its predictive biomarkers.
24107941J. Neurosci.2013Burg VK et al.Plant sterols the better cholesterol in Alzheimer's disease? A mechanistical study.
24449766Mol. Cell. Biol.2014Zelcer N et al.The E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH6 degrades squalene monooxygenase and affects 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase and the cholesterol synthesis pathway.
17409448Cancer Res.2007Sánchez-Martín CC et al.Cholesterol starvation induces differentiation of human leukemia HL-60 cells.